1 So all the children of Israel came out, from Dan to Beersheba, as well as from the land of
Gilead, and the congregation gathered together as one man before the LORD at Mizpah.
Mizpah (not to be confused with Mizpeh in Gilead) was a city about 3 miles northeast of Gibeah, in the
territory of Benjamin. This shows the magnitude of the horror of the people of Israel in that all Israel
gathered, some from over 70 miles away to discuss this issue.
2 And the leaders of all the people, all the tribes of Israel, presented themselves in the assembly of the people of God, four hundred thousand foot soldiers who drew the sword.
3 (Now the children of Benjamin heard that the children of Israel had gone up to Mizpah.) Then the children of Israel said, "Tell us, how did this wicked deed happen?"
4 So the Levite, the husband of the woman who was murdered, answered and said, "My concubine and I went into Gibeah, which belongs to Benjamin, to spend the night.
5 "And the men of Gibeah rose against me, and surrounded the house at night because of me. They intended to kill me, but instead they ravished my concubine so that she died.
6 "So I took hold of my concubine, cut her in pieces, and sent her throughout all the territory of the inheritance of Israel, because they committed lewdness and outrage in Israel.
7 "Look! All of you are children of Israel; give your advice and counsel here and now!"
8 So all the people arose as one man, saying, "None of us will go to his tent, nor will any turn back to his house;
9 "but now this is the thing which we will do to Gibeah: We will go up against it by lot.
10 "We will take ten men out of every hundred throughout all the tribes of Israel, a hundred out of every thousand, and a thousand out of every ten thousand, to make provisions for the people, that when they come to Gibeah in Benjamin, they may repay all the vileness that they have done in Israel."
11 So all the men of Israel were gathered against the city, united together as one man.
12 Then the tribes of Israel sent men through all the tribe of Benjamin, saying, "What is this wickedness that has occurred among you?
13 "Now therefore, deliver up the men, the perverted men who are in Gibeah, that we may
put them to death and remove the evil from Israel!" But the children of Benjamin would not
listen to the voice of their brethren, the children of Israel.
Again this shows that there is no central authority such as a judge in Israel during this time. And it also shows the moral decay of the people of Benjamin and Gibeah in the fact that they were willing to risk war with the rest of Israel, rather than punish the men responsible for the rape and murder of the concubine.Judges 20:14-17
14 Instead, the children of Benjamin gathered together from their cities to Gibeah, to go to battle against the children of Israel.
15 And from their cities at that time the children of Benjamin numbered twenty-six thousand men who drew the sword, besides the inhabitants of Gibeah, who numbered seven hundred select men.
16 Among all this people were seven hundred select men who were left-handed; every one could sling a stone at a hair's breadth and not miss.
17 Now besides Benjamin, the men of Israel numbered four hundred thousand men who drew
the sword; all of these were men of war.
In the hands of a skilled slinger, a slung stone could be a deadly weapon, capable of dropping an enemy many yards away. It is also stated that these men were left-handed slingers, which would
allow them to use slings for approaching enemies, then quickly switch to swords in their right hands for close combat.Judges 20:18-28
18 Then the children of Israel arose and went up to the house of God to inquire of God. They said, "Which of us shall go up first to battle against the children of Benjamin?" The LORD said, "Judah first!"
19 So the children of Israel rose in the morning and encamped against Gibeah.
20 And the men of Israel went out to battle against Benjamin, and the men of Israel put themselves in battle array to fight against them at Gibeah.
21 Then the children of Benjamin came out of Gibeah, and on that day cut down to the ground twenty-two thousand men of the Israelites.
22 And the people, that is, the men of Israel, encouraged themselves and again formed the battle line at the place where they had put themselves in array on the first day.
23 Then the children of Israel went up and wept before the LORD until evening, and asked counsel of the LORD, saying, "Shall I again draw near for battle against the children of my brother Benjamin?" And the LORD said, "Go up against him."
24 So the children of Israel approached the children of Benjamin on the second day.
25 And Benjamin went out against them from Gibeah on the second day, and cut down to the ground eighteen thousand more of the children of Israel; all these drew the sword.
26 Then all the children of Israel, that is, all the people, went up and came to the house of God and wept. They sat there before the LORD and fasted that day until evening; and they offered burnt offerings and peace offerings before the LORD.
27 So the children of Israel inquired of the LORD (the ark of the covenant of God was there in those days,
28 and Phinehas the son of Eleazar, the son of Aaron, stood before it in those days), saying,
"Shall I yet again go out to battle against the children of my brother Benjamin, or shall I
cease?" And the LORD said, "Go up, for tomorrow I will deliver them into your hand."
Israel lost 40,000 men in the two battles against the tribe of Benjamin. But if you notice, they didn't
ask the Lord what to do, they only asked which tribe should go first to battle. And the second
time, they didn't offer sacrifices for their own sins before they went to battle. Then, and only then, did
the Lord tell them that they would be victorious.
We need to remember this in our own lives also. We can't fight Satan and his servants if we have unforgiven or active sins in our lives. Before any battle, we must seek the forgiveness and cleansing of the Lord before we set out.Judges 20:29-35
29 Then Israel set men in ambush all around Gibeah.
30 And the children of Israel went up against the children of Benjamin on the third day, and put themselves in battle array against Gibeah as at the other times.
31 So the children of Benjamin went out against the people, and were drawn away from the city. They began to strike down and kill some of the people, as at the other times, in the highways (one of which goes up to Bethel and the other to Gibeah) and in the field, about thirty men of Israel.
32 And the children of Benjamin said, "They are defeated before us, as at first." But the children of Israel said, "Let us flee and draw them away from the city to the highways."
33 So all the men of Israel rose from their place and put themselves in battle array at Baal Tamar. Then Israel's men in ambush burst forth from their position in the plain of Geba.
34 And ten thousand select men from all Israel came against Gibeah, and the battle was fierce. But the Benjamites did not know that disaster was upon them.
35 The LORD defeated Benjamin before Israel. And the children of Israel destroyed that day
twenty-five thousand one hundred Benjamites; all these drew the sword.
The location of Ba'al Tamar is unknown, but it may have been a small village just north of Gibeah This
ambush was a classic tactic earlier used by Joshua when fighting against the city of Ai. The Israelites
would flee before the enemy, and the excited enemy would empty the city of defenders in their
eagerness to kill and plunder the besiegers. Then the ambushers would enter the defenseless city and
Note that while Israel lost about 10% of it's people, the tribe of Benjamin only had 1600 men left; 94% of their men had been killed. We can pretty much assume that the men who had raped and killed the concubine were among the dead.Judges 20:36-48
36 So the children of Benjamin saw that they were defeated. The men of Israel had given ground to the Benjamites, because they relied on the men in ambush whom they had set against Gibeah.
37 And the men in ambush quickly rushed upon Gibeah; the men in ambush spread out and struck the whole city with the edge of the sword.
38 Now the appointed signal between the men of Israel and the men in ambush was that they would make a great cloud of smoke rise up from the city,
39 whereupon the men of Israel would turn in battle. Now Benjamin had begun to strike and kill about thirty of the men of Israel. For they said, "Surely they are defeated before us, as in the first battle."
40 But when the cloud began to rise from the city in a column of smoke, the Benjamites looked behind them, and there was the whole city going up in smoke to heaven.
41 And when the men of Israel turned back, the men of Benjamin panicked, for they saw that disaster had come upon them.
42 Therefore they turned their backs before the men of Israel in the direction of the wilderness; but the battle overtook them, and whoever came out of the cities they destroyed in their midst.
43 They surrounded the Benjamites, chased them, and easily trampled them down as far as the front of Gibeah toward the east.
44 And eighteen thousand men of Benjamin fell; all these were men of valor.
45 Then they turned and fled toward the wilderness to the rock of Rimmon; and they cut down five thousand of them on the highways. Then they pursued them relentlessly up to Gidom, and killed two thousand of them.
46 So all who fell of Benjamin that day were twenty-five thousand men who drew the sword; all these were men of valor.
47 But six hundred men turned and fled toward the wilderness to the rock of Rimmon, and they stayed at the rock of Rimmon for four months.
48 And the men of Israel turned back against the children of Benjamin, and struck them down
with the edge of the sword from every city, men and beasts, all who were found. They also set
fire to all the cities they came to.
Many of the houses in the cities of ancient times were built of clay bricks mixed with straw, braced with
wooden support beams. When Joshua destroyed the royal city of Hazor in northern Canaan,
archaeologists discovered that the heat was so intense that the clay bricks melted and flowed like lava
through the streets. So setting the city on fire wouldn't have been much of a problem.
Rimmon was a village about 8 miles northeast of Gibeah, and apparently some of the surviving
Benjamites fled there and created some kind of defensive fortifications. In the mean time, Israel burned
a number of their cities and killed a number of inhabitants of Benjamin in vengeance.
If only the Benjamites had given up the men who had caused this problem in the first place, none of this would have happened.